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Language: Vocabulary – semantic observations

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Language: Vocabulary - semantic observations

A.I.5. To respond to two (2) or three (3) lexical-semantic remarks with words or phrases from the unlearned text.


>> Etymology – Production – Composition: prefixes and suffixes, compounds, word families

>> Morphosomantic information: synonyms – antonyms, homonyms, pronouns, polysemy, root

>> Words / phrases and words / phrases of the Ancient Greek and Latin Language, foreign words, loans and counter-loans

(units 8)

Let's look at all the corresponding exercises that entered the Pancyprian Examinations from 2006 until today.



inseparable = Inseparable, inseparable, indestructible, narrow, inseparable, solid, solid, inseparable.

unstoppable = unceasing, unrestrained, unrestrained, unobstructed, unrestrained, abrupt, unstoppable, unrestrained, unbridled, intense, stormy, impetuous, rapid, fierce

solidarity = support, mutual aid, mutual support, mutual support

necessary = compulsory, obligatory, unavoidable, necessary, basic, vital

boredom = boredom, boredom, boredom, athymia

reflects = reflects, reflects, mirrors, reflects, reveals, projects, illustrates, shows, reflects.

Dismissed = abandoned, betrayed, lost, renounced, renounced, sold out, lost

Aims = Aims, aims, aims, anticipates, intends.

decisive = decisive, primary, capital, burdensome, great, crucial, substantial, essential, vital, fundamental, catalytic

insignificant = insignificant, insignificant, indifferent, secondary, insignificant, negligible

shaping = shaping, shaping, creating, developing

foresaw = sensed, discerned, guessed, guessed, smelled, foresaw, foretold, prophesied, apprehended, concluded, suspected, psychoanalyzed

manifestations = expressions, sides, faces, events, aspects, forms, parameters

obvious = obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, clear, self-evident, visible, obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, obvious, visible

revolutionary = radical, radical, groundbreaking, innovative, subversive, modernist, modernist, pioneering.

diligence = care, interest, care, attention, zeal

imperative = immediate, necessary, compulsory, necessary, strict, operative, categorical, accusative, imperative, obligatory

ephemeral = temporary, transient, temporary

guides = indicates, directs, guides, orients, advises, instructs, teaches

destructive = destructive, leveling, destructive, destructive, deadly, destructive, sweeping

secures = secures, secures, preserves, protects

care = Care, concern, diligence, interest, provision, concern.

obsolete = obsolete, obsolete, obsolete, faded, trivial, obsolete, past

Destructive = destructive, destructive, destructive, destructive, deadly, criminal, deadly, fatal

fixed = fixed, permanent, immovable, unchanged

promotion = development, evolution, progress, improvement, upgrade

profitable = profitable, profitable

pretext = reason, excuse, invention, “press”, cover, curtain, pretext, sophistry, trick

Submissive = enslaved, enslaved, surrendered, trapped

wisdom = prudence, wisdom, prudence, reason, prudence, contemplation, rationality, prudence, righteousness, wisdom, wisdom, prudence, discretion, rationalism

debt = obligation, duty, debt, responsibility.


counter = brought together, agree, collaborate, work together, strengthen, hand in hand, are in line, line, drawn, align themselves, allied.


dignity = indignity, pettiness, vileness, bribery

concealed = announced, reported, revealed, disclosed, declared, made public, chanted, trumpeted, exposed, communicated, said, “uncovered”, projected, emphasized, overemphasized, manifested.

unsubstantiated = provable, provable, valid, verifiable, verifiable, verifiable, certifiable, convincing, imputed, substantiated

authentic = fake, fictitious, false, fabricated, forged

improvement = deterioration, deterioration, regression, degradation

improvement = deterioration, deterioration

knowledge = ignorance, ignorance, ignorance

bind = release, liberate, liberate, release, release

permanent = instantaneous, instantaneous, discontinuous, sporadic, ephemeral, temporary, transient, concise, intermittent, intermittent, short-term, short-term, short-term, short, limited

ominous = auspicious, optimistic, positive, hopeful

ominous = auspicious, optimistic, hopeful, auspicious, auspicious, auspicious, positive, good sign, brilliant, bright

humiliation = smallness, indecency, humility.

prosperity = misery, question, hardship, misery, poverty, misery, misery, austerity, misery, oligarchy, poverty, deprivation, poverty / poverty

have shrunk = have grown, have grown, have strengthened, have radiated, have (spread), have expanded, have grown, have opened, have (widened), have enlarged, have expanded, have grown, have enlarged, have maximized , they have multiplied

valued = devalued, rejected, nullified, ignored

we hide = we reveal, we reveal, we appear, we present, we appear

incomprehensible = incomprehensible, horses, brains, brainless, stupid, foolish, reckless, unwise, naive, foolish, foolish, outrageous, cretins, babies, irrational, stupid

luxury = austerity, simplicity, oligarchy, poverty, bribery, cheapness, humility, misery, misery, poverty, misery, misery, hardship, wonder, deprivation

primary = secondary, insignificant, insignificant, last, negligible.

rapid = slow, gradual, gradual, slow, gentle, quiet, staggered, soft, slow, gradual

constant = unstable, unstable, variable, variable

collective = individual, personal, individual.

consent = denial, rejection, disagreement

complex = simple, one-dimensional, one-dimensional, one-sided, one-sided




develops = [OUS] development, developmental development, developable

perceives = [OUS] perception, perception, perceptibility, perceptor [EPITH.] perceptive, perceptible, perceptible, perceptible

we perceive = [OUS] perception, perceiver, perception [EPITH.] perceived-a-the perceptive-or-the perceived-or-all, perceptible-the-o

face = [OUS] face to face, -η, -ο, [ΕΠΙΘ.] confrontable, -η, -ο

prohibit = [OUS] prohibition [EPITH.] prohibitive, prohibitive

liberates = [OUS] liberation, liberator [EPITH.] liberating, liberating

abort = [OUS] landing, dock [EPITH.] apobatic

exclude = [OUS] exclusion, exclusivity, exclusion [EPITH.] exclusive, exclusive

increased = [ΟΥΣ] increase [ΕΠΙΘ.] incremental, -ή, -ό

based = [OUS] basis, validity, basicity [ADD] basic, valid

improved = [OUS] improvement, improver [EPITH.] improver, the, the improveable, the, the

exploits = [ΟΥΣ] exploitation, exploiter [ΕΠΙΘ.] exploitable, the, the, exploitative, the, the

imposed = [OUS] enforcement [EPITH.] imposing

impose = [OUS] imposition, imposing [EPITH.] imposing, imposing, imposing imposing

favors = [OUS] favor [EPITH.] favorable

applied = [OUS] application, applicator [ADD] applicable, the, applicable, the, the, applicable, a, the, applicable, or, whatever

has exceeded = [OUS] transcendence, transcendence, transcendence, transcendence [EPITH.] transcendent-the-transcendental-or-all

we consume = [OUS] consumption, consumer, consumerism [EP.] consumer, -or, -o, consumable, -the,

dominates = [OUS] domination, domination [EPITH.] sovereign-or-all, sovereign-the-o

to challenge = [OUS] questionable, challenger [ΕΠΙΘ.] questionable, η, ο

means = [OUS] meaning [EPITH.] conceivable

meaning = [OUS] intelligence, intelligent [EPITH.] mental, meaningful, mental

organized = [OUS] organization, organizer [EPITH.] organizational, organized

we produce = [OUS] production, productivity, producer, factor [ΕΠΙΘ.] productive, -ή, -ό, derivative, -η, -ο, producible, -η, -ο

restrict = [OUS] restriction, restrictor [EPITH.] restrictive, restrictive, restrictable

source = [OUS] source, well, well, well [EPITH.] source, well

Provokes = [OUS] provocation [EPITH.] Provocative

Attention = [OUS] attention [ADJECTIVE]

offers = [OUS] offer, suitable [EPITH.] suitable, offered

wasted = [OUS] wasted [ΕΠΙΘ.] wasted

contribute = [OUS] contribution, symbol, contract [EPITH.] symbolic, contracted, contracted



unaffected = α (ster.) / if (ster) / α + ν / α / α (ν) + affect / influence / influence

exclusions = from + close (close)

diseases = α (ster.) + vigor

lack = εν + λείπω

lead = street + lead

οριοθετουν = όριο -α + θέτω (τίθημι)

modern = plus + time

coherence = plus + I have

abbreviation = plus + volume / section / intersect

technologies = art + reason / I say

>> To analyze the following words in their synthetic parts and (a) to form with their second synthetic, a new compound word:

configuration = for + education / educate / form


awakens = from + sleep / hypnoto

insomnia, insomnia, vigilant, vigilant

reinforcement = in + power / valid

strong, strengthen, claim, claim, assertive, prevail, prevail, mighty…

determines = by + define / term / definition


(b) form a new compound word:

reason: biology, philology, analogy, irrationality, censorship, literature, literary, accountable, select, choose, contradict, etc.

leader: educator, conduct, production, general, captain, reductant etc.


A separate category of loans is counter-loans. They are words that “traveled” from ancient Greek to another language or to other languages (usually Latin and Italian, French, etc.) and returned to modern Greek in the form of loans. Typical example, the words gas (


Amantes amentes = the lovers [are] crazy (Terentius, 185-159 BC).

In vino veritas = in wine the truth, in wine the truth.

Res, non verba = works, not words.

Verba volant, scripta manent = words fly, writings remain, based on Homer's “empty promises”.

Timeo Danaos et dona ferrentes = φοβού τους Δαναούς και δώρα φέροντας , (Βιργίλιος, 70-19 π.Χ., Λατίνος ποιητής).

Timendi causa est nescire = the cause of fear is ignorance (Seneca, 4 AD-65 AD, Roman philosopher).

Oderint , dum metuant = let them hate me, as long as they are afraid of me (Caligula, Roman emperor).

Corruptio optimi pessima = the corruption of the excellent is the worst.

Ave Caesar , morituri te salutant = Χαίρε Καίσαρ, οι μελλοθάνατοι σε χαιρετουν. The greeting of the gladiators before the fights in the Roman arenas.

Dum spiro spero = as long as I breathe I hope.

Cogito ergo sum = I think, so I exist Descartes, 1596-1650, French philosopher.

Citius , Altius , Fortius = faster, taller, louder (Pierre de Coubertin, 1863-1937, French Olympic revivalist). Olympic motto, inspired by his school coat of arms.

Nil desperandum ! = never despair (Horace, 65-8 BC, Latin poet).

Veni , vidi , vici = I came, I saw, I won (Julius Caesar, 101-14 BC, Roman general and supreme).

Dura lex , sed lex = hard law, but law.

Summum jus , summa injuria = supreme (excessive) justice, supreme injustice.

Carpe diem = seized [and exploited] the day (Horace, 65-8 BC, Latin poet).

O tempora ! The mores ! = oh times, oh manners! (Cicero, 106-43 BC, Roman orator and politician).

Ad calendas Graecas = in Greek calendars. Proverb (meaning “never”).



a posteriori = εκ των υστέρων

a priori = in advance, theoretically, without observation

ad hoc = for this especially

advocatus diaboli = the lawyer of the devil

alma mater = foster mother (used for universities)

alter ego = the other self

altera pars = the other side

a cappella = in the church (mtf., without the accompaniment of music)

anno domini = [by] the year of the Lord

aqua fortis = nitric acid

aqua vitae = water of life (used for alcoholic beverages)

audio, video, disco = I hear, I see, I learn

bona fide = in good faith

bona fortuna = good luck

casus belli = cause of war

cum laude = after praise

curriculum vitae = course of life (biographical note)

de facto = practically, out of things

de iure = according to law, rightfully

de profundis = εκ βαθέων (Ψαλμοί Δαβίδ)

erga omnes = against all

ex cathedra = from chair

ex libris = from the library, from the bibliography

ex officio = from position of power

habeas corpus = you must have the body (you must justify the trial)

hic et nunc = here and now

homo erectus = standing man (anthropological term)

homo sapiens = human man (anthropological term)

homo universalis = man with general interests and a lot of knowledge

honoris gratia = τιμή ένεκεν

in absentia = ερήμην

in extremis = in the extremes, in the extreme case, in the last case

in memoriam = εις μνήμην

in nomine domini = εις το نام του Κυρίου

in principio = επί της αρχής

in promptu = with readiness, immediately (fast)

in situ = on site, autopsy

in vitro = in glass (mtf. in artificial conditions, in the laboratory)

in vivo = in real conditions

ipso facto = based on the fact itself

lapsus calami = typographical error

lapsus linguae = linguistic slip

lingua franca = French language (trans., ecumenical language)

Magna Carta = big paper, the rights convention of 1215 (England)

magna cum laude = with great praise

magnum opus = the great work (of life)

manus in mano = hand in hand

mare nostrum = our sea (the Mediterranean)

mea culpa = my mistake

memorandum = memorandum, memorandum

modus vivendi = way of life

moratorium = delay

mutatis mutandis = after the necessary changes, in proportion

novus ordo = new order

Opus Dei = work of God (para-religious organization of Catholics)

pater familias = the father of the family

pax romana = Roman peace

per capita = per capita

per cent = τοις εκατό

per se = per se, alone, alone

persona non grata = unwanted person

post hoc = after that

post mortem = after death (and autopsy)

primus inter pares = first among equals (title of the Roman emperors)

pro bono [ publico ] = for the [public] good

pro forma = for types (standard document)

pro patria = υπέρ πατρίδος

quid pro quo = something for something (something in return)

quo vadis ? = where are you going?

scripta manent = the writings remain

sine nobilitatis = without polite origin (according to one interpretation the English snob = the snob comes from here)

sine qua non = εκ των ων ουκ άνευ

status quo = the established, the existing situation

sui generis = idiosyncratic, whimsical, idiosyncratic

summa summarum = the sum of the sums, final sum

tabula rasa = white plate, trans. unwritten paper, on a new basis

terra incognita = unknown land

veni , vidi , vici = I came, I saw, I won

verbatim = (exactly), literally

verbatim ac litteratim = literally and literally

vice versa = and vice versa, upside down

vivat = ζήτω

ab ovo = from the egg (mtf. from the beginning)

delirium tremens = terrible delirium

divide et impera = divide and rule

inter allias (or allia ) = among others

per diem = every day (Today in the sense of the allowance for daily expenses)



post scriptum PS υστερόγραφία

et cetera etc. etc. (etc.)

id est ie that means, that is

exempli gratia eg for example (e.g.)

et alii et al. and others (etc.)

ante meridiem am before noon

post meridiem pm after noon

versus vs. against, against

artium baccalaureus BA Bachelor of Arts (title of studies)

artium magister MA Master of Arts

Source: politis.com.cy

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